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How to Write a Hypothesis

A hypothesis, according to the definition, is a supposition based on prior information. To be more specific, it is a statement that converts the basic research question into a logical prediction based on existing facts and data. To address a specific topic, one must first identify the research problem (research question), do preliminary study, and then set out to answer the provided question by conducting experiments and evaluating the results. However, before moving on to the experimental section of the research, one must first determine what they hope to find as outcomes. A scientist develops an informed assumption and creates a hypothesis that he or she will confirm or disprove throughout the course of their research.

Characteristics and Sources of a Hypothesis


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Now, as you know what a hypothesis is in a nutshell, let’s look at the key characteristics that define it:

  • It has to be clear and accurate in order to look reliable.
  • It has to be specific.
  • There should be scope for further investigation and experiments.
  • A hypothesis should be explained in simple language—while retaining its significance.
  • If you are making a relational hypothesis, two essential elements you have to include are variables and the relationship between them.

The main sources of a hypothesis are:

  • Scientific theories.
  • Observations from previous studies and current experiences.
  • The resemblance among different phenomena.
  • General patterns that affect people’s thinking process.

Types of Hypothesis

In general, there are two sorts of scientific hypotheses: alternative and null.

Alternative Hypothesis

This form of hypothesis is commonly referred to as H1. This statement describes the predicted outcome of your research. This sort of hypothesis, according to the alternative hypothesis concept, may be further subdivided into two subcategories:

  • Directional — a statement that explains the direction of the expected outcomes. Sometimes this type of hypothesis is used to study the relationship between variables rather than comparing between the groups.
  • Non-directional — unlike the directional alternative hypothesis, a non-directional one does not imply a specific direction of the expected outcomes.


Null Hypothesis

This sort of hypothesis is commonly referred to as H0. This remark is the polar opposite of what you expect or predict will occur over the course of your research—that is, it is the polar opposite of your alternative hypothesis. Simply expressed, a null hypothesis asserts that no exact or real association exists between the variables specified in the hypothesis.

Both of these theories offer particular explanations and restatements of the research challenge. The primary distinction between these hypotheses and research problems is that the latter is just a query that cannot be tested, whereas hypotheses can.


Although null and alternative hypotheses are the major types, there are also a few more to keep in mind:

Research Hypothesis a statement that is used to test the correlation between two or more variables.

Simple Hypothesisa statement used to indicate the correlation between one independent and one dependent variable.

Complex Hypothesis a statement used to indicate the correlation between two or more independent variables and two or more dependent variables.

Associative and Causal Hypothesis an associative hypothesis is a statement used to indicate the correlation between variables under the scenario when a change in one variable inevitably changes the other variable. A causal hypothesis is a statement that highlights the cause and effect relationship between variables.

Hypothesis Outline

1. Define Your Research Question

One thing to remember is that no matter what paper or topic you are working on, the process should always begin with asking the appropriate research question. A great research question is one that is particular, clear, targeted (not too wide), and doable.

2. Conduct Your Basic Initial Research

A hypothesis, as you may know, is an informed approximation about the predicted results and conclusions of an inquiry. As a result, it is critical to gather some facts before making this assumption. Based on what has previously been uncovered, you should be able to answer your research topic at this point. Look for evidence, previous research, hypotheses, and so forth. You should be able to make a reasonable and educated guess based on the facts you have gathered.

3. Formulate a Hypothesis

Based on your preliminary study, you should have a good sense of what you could discover throughout the course of your investigation. Make use of this knowledge to develop a clear and succinct hypothesis. You may repeat your hypothesis in a variety of ways, depending on the sort of project you’re working on and the type of hypothesis you want to use:


Non-directional: Eating fruits and vegetables will affect one’s human physical health.

Directional: Eating fruits and vegetables will positively affect one’s human physical health.

Null: Eating fruits and vegetables will have no effect on one’s human physical health.

4. Refine Your Hypothesis

Finally, the final step in developing a decent hypothesis is to refine what you’ve got. During this stage, you must determine whether your hypothesis:

  • Has clear and relevant variables;
  • Identifies the relationship between its variables;
  • Is specific and testable;
  • Suggests a predicted result of the investigation or experiment.

An Example Of Hypothesis


Research Question Hypothesis Null Hypothesis
How does stress affect the academic performance of undergraduate students? Increasing levels of stress among undergraduate students will result in decreasing academic performance. Increasing levels of stress among undergraduate students will have no effect on academic performance.
How does improved work-life balance influence employees’ productivity in the workplace? Employees who have a better work-life balance will demonstrate higher productivity compared to those employees who do not have a good work-life balance. There is no relationship between work-life balance and productivity at the workplace.
How does the frequent use of social media impact users’ attention span under 16 years of age? There is a negative dependence between the frequency of social media usage and the attention span of users under 16 years of age. There is no correlation between the time spent on social media and the attention span of users under 16 years of age.
How does playing video games affect the brain? Video games can have a negative impact on a person’s brain, vision, and memory. Playing video games does not affect a person’s brain.
Why is it important to integrate mental health education into school programs? The increase of mental health awareness in schools will result in a better understanding of mental health issues and possible ways to combat them among pupils and teachers. The implementation of mental health education in schools will have no effect on students.


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