Econ Midterm 3 - Custom Scholars
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# Econ Midterm 3

question
Electric utility companies have built larger and larger electric generating stations and, as a result, the long-run average cost of producing each kilowatt hour decreased. This is an example of
economies of scale.
question
Silvio's Pizza is a small pizzeria. The firm's production function is shown in the table above. Suppose that Silvio's costs include only the cost of renting ovens, which is \$100 per oven per week, the labor cost, \$280 per worker per week, and the opportunity cost of Silvio's entrepreneurship, \$1,000 per week. When Silvio's uses 2 ovens and hires the 3rd worker, the marginal product of labor is ________ the average product of labor, and therefore the average product of labor ________.
less than; increases
question
The average total cost curves for plants A, B, C, and D are shown in the above figure. It is possible that the long-run average cost curve runs through points
d, e, and f.
question
In the above figure, the long-run average cost curve exhibits diseconomies of scale
between 20 and 25 units per hour.
question
When a firm is experiencing economies of scale
the LRAC curve slopes downward.
question
Diseconomies of scale definitely means that as the firm increases its output, its
long-run average total cost increases.
question
In the short run
no firm experiences economies of scale.
question
Silvio's Pizza is a small pizzeria. The firm's production function is shown in the table above. Suppose that Silvio's costs include only the cost of renting ovens, which is \$100 per oven per week, the labor cost, \$280 per worker per week, and the opportunity cost of Silvio's entrepreneurship, \$1,000 per week. Suppose Silvio's uses Plant 1 and hires 3 workers. What is the firm's average fixed cost?
\$11.00
question
The average total cost curves for Plant 1, ATC0, and Plant 2, ATC1, are shown in the figure above. Over what range of output is it efficient to operate Plant 2?
greater than 25
question
In the long run, if a firm is operating with economies of scale, it is on the ______ portion of its LRAC.
downward-sloping
question
If a production process faces diminishing marginal returns, which of the following is most likely?
Marginal costs are increasing.
question
The table shows the average costs of production for various quantities, given three different amounts of capital. Each factory illustrates a(n) _____ average cost curve.
U-shaped
question
Consider a firm, using capital (K) and labor (L) in the production process, that wants to expand production. Suppose MPK = 200 and MPL = 50. The cost of capital is r = 80, and the wage rate is w = 10. Should this firm employ more labor or more capital?
Labor
question
An economy is on its production possibilities frontier. If the economy faces diminishing marginal returns, what will happen to the opportunity cost as the production of one of the categories of goods increases?
The opportunity cost will increase as it takes more to produce the good.
question
In the typical short run model of the firm, we generally assume that labor is_______ and capital is________ .
variable; fixed
question
Consider the concepts of economies of scale and diseconomies of scale. What is meant by the word "scale" in these concepts?
The size of the firm.
question
An efficient Nebraska corn farm decides to hire more workers and use fewer harvesting machines after learning of:I. An increase in corn commodity prices.II. A decrease in fuel prices.III. An increase in worker productivity.IV. An increase in harvesting machine maintenance costs.
III and IV
question
In the long run, the total cost function will be:
Upward sloping.
question
Rising average product as inputs increase means that which of the following is happening to costs?
Average costs alone are falling.
question
Which of the following would be likely in a market with firms experiencing economies of scale?
Most of the firms will tend to be large.
question
Mimi wants to see if she should buy another oven for her restaurant. How might she use marginal analysis to make a decision?
Examine the price of the oven and the marginal product of the oven.
question
Diminishing returns is most relevant when:
None of the these.
question
A restaurant employs 10 workers and has one oven. The firm hires an 11th worker. The week after, it hires a 12th worker. The marginal product of the 12th worker is less than the 11th worker because of _______.
diminishing returns.
question
Consider a firm, using capital (K) and labor (L) in the production process, that wants to expand production. Suppose MPK = 400. The cost of capital is r = 80, and the wage rate is w = 10. The firm would use more labor to expand production only if the marginal product of labor is greater than _____.
50
question
A private psychiatrist's office is a business that will demonstrate ______________, as it will face increasing average costs in the long run.
diseconomies of scale
question
If the firm were to choose a permanent output level of Q = 8,000, the lowest average cost would be achieved with the _______.
large factory.
question
In order to maximize profits at any level of output, the firm must:
Minimize production costs.
question
A car manufacturing plant in Michigan employs the optimal combination of both unionized and non-unionized labor. The plant agrees to a new union contract that stipulates higher wages. As the plant re-adjusts its inputs, marginal product of non-unionized workers will:
Decrease.
question
Use the numbers to build the firm's LRAC function. In other words, assuming that at any level of output, the firm uses the proper factory size to get the lowest average cost of production. As this firm grows from 2,000 to 8,000 units, it will be experiencing:
Economies of scale.
question
Given the following data, what should the firm do? Current production = 1,000 Current price = \$10Marginal cost = \$10Total costs = \$15,000Fixed cost = \$6,000
Continue to produce in the short run, but close down in the long run.
question
Suppose in the long run a firm decides to grow in size and increase output. What will happen regarding the LRAC?
The firm will move from one point to another point, from left to right, on the same LRAC.
question
The key difference between the short-run and long-run model of the firm is that:
We assume at least one fixed input in the short run and all variable inputs in the long run.
question
Suppose in the long run a firm's labor costs decrease. What will happen regarding the LRAC?
The entire LRAC function will shift downward.
question
If the firm were to choose a permanent output level of Q = 6,000, the lowest average cost would be achieved with the ______.
medium factory.
question
Given the following facts, what should the firm do in the short run? In the long run?Fixed costs are \$50,000. Total costs are \$90,000. Total revenues are \$45,000.
Continue to produce in the short run; leave the industry in the long run.
question
Use the numbers to build the firm's LRAC function. In other words, assuming that at any level of output, the firm uses the proper factory size to get the lowest average cost of production. As this firm grows from 8,000 to 10,000 units, it will be experiencing:
Constant returns to scale.
question
Consider a firm, using capital (K) and labor (L) in the production process, that wants to expand production. Suppose MPK = 200 and MPL = 60. The cost of capital is r = 50. The firm would use more labor to expand production only if the wage rate is less than _____ dollars.
15
question
In the long run, if a firm is on the downward-sloping portion of its LRAC curve, the firm is currently experiencing ______.
economies of scale.
question
A small shirt factory in Taiwan doubles its labor inputs and experiences a tripling in output. A large catering kitchen in Tokyo increases its inputs by 30% and experiences a 50% increase in production. Which of the following is true?
Both firms enjoy economies of scale
question
At Wisconsin's snowy Lambeau Field, a football stadium, snow removal is currently done by a mix of workers (equipped with shovels and paid minimum wage) and automated self-operating snowblower machines, which require no labor. The stadium is currently using the optimal combination of both snowblowers and workers. If Wisconsin's minimum wage rises, and nothing else changes, what should the stadium do?
Utilize more machines and fewer workers.
question
A firm is producing where the Marginal Product of Labor is 18 and the Marginal Product of Capital is 10. The price of labor is \$3 and the cost of capital is \$2.
The firm is planning their future inputs and can now adjust both labor and capital. How should they adjust inputs?
Increase labor and decrease capital
question
Suppose a firm wants to do marginal analysis to see if it should employ more capital or more labor in order to increase output. The firm knows the prices of the inputs. Is this enough information to answer the question at hand?
No, the firm also needs to know the marginal productivities of each of the inputs.
question
Suppose that as a firm grows, it first experiences economies of scale, then constant returns to scale, then diseconomies of scale. The LRAC for this firm will be ______.
shaped like a wide U.
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A firm is producing where the Marginal Product of Labor is 18 and the Marginal Product of Capital is 10. The price of labor is \$3 and the cost of capital is \$2.
They cannot adjust their capital, so are they in the short run or the long run?
Short Run
question
If the firm were to choose a permanent output level of Q = 4,000, the lowest average cost would be achieved with the _______.
small factory.
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A pool-cleaning firm employs cleaning machines and cleaning workers. If local wages fall and robots become more effective, the firm should employ:
One cannot tell.
question
Economies of scale occurs when long-run average costs are and diseconomies of scale occurs when long-run average costs are .
decreasing / increasing
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Suppose a company with a single large factory expands to multiple locations. This would require the firm to hire more mid-level management positions and establish an HR department. This firm is likely experiencing ________ with this expansion.
diseconomies of scale
question
The market demand for wheat is ________ and the demand for wheat produced by an individual farm is ________.
not perfectly elastic; perfectly elastic
question
If Steve's Apple Orchard, Inc. is a perfectly competitive firm, the demand for Steve's apples has
infinite elasticity.
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Marginal revenue is defined as
the change in total revenue that results from a one-unit increase in the quantity sold.
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The goal of a perfectly competitive firm is to maximize its
economic profit.
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A market is perfectly competitive if
there are many firms in it, each selling an identical product.
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A perfectly competitive firm has a total revenue curve that is
upward sloping with a constant slope.
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The economic profit of a perfectly competitive firm
is less than its total revenue.
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Which of the following is NOT an assumption of perfect competition?
Firms compete by making their product different from products produced by other firms.
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For a perfectly competitive firm, as its output increases its marginal revenue ________ and its marginal cost ________.
does not change; changes
question
Bob's Lawn Care Services is a perfectly competitive firm that currently mows 22 lawns a week. Bob's marginal cost exceeds the price he charges. Bob can increase his profit if he
mows fewer than 22 lawns a week.
question
For a perfectly competitive firm, the shutdown point is the
amount of output at which price equals minimum average variable cost.
question
The donut market is perfectly competitive. The figure shows the costs of a typical donut producer. In the short run, the donut producer's supply curve is the curve running from point ________ to point E.
B
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As long as it does not shut down, a profit-maximizing perfectly competitive firm will.
produce so that marginal revenue equals marginal cost.
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If the price exceeds the average variable cost, by producing the level of output such that marginal revenue equals marginal cost, the firm ensures that it will
earn the largest profit possible.
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In the above figure, if the price is \$8 per unit, how many units will a profit maximizing perfectly competitive firm produce?
20
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The figure above shows the marginal revenue and costs of a perfectly competitive firm. The marginal cost of the last unit produced is
\$16 per unit.
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The figure above shows a perfectly competitive firm. The firm is operating; that is, it has not shut down. The firm produces
10 units of output and incurs an economic loss.
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The figure above shows a perfectly competitive firm. The firm is operating; that is, the firm has not shut down. The firm is
incurring a economic loss of \$200.
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In the short run, an increase in demand for a good that is sold in a perfectly competitive market
increases the economic profits of existing firms in the market.
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Giuseppe's Pizza is a perfectly competitive firm. The firm's costs are shown in the table above. If the market price is \$15, how much economic profit does the firm make?
\$0
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The figure above shows the marginal revenue and costs of a perfectly competitive firm. The firm's profit is maximized when the firm produces
170 units of output.
question
The above table shows the per day total cost for Kiley's Baseball Glove Company. Each glove is priced at \$50 and Kiley's Baseball Glove Company is a perfectly competitive firm. At which of the following amounts of output is the economic profit maximized for Kiley's Baseball Glove Company?
5
question
The figure illustrates the short-run costs of Paul's Picture Frames Inc. The picture frame market is perfectly competitive and the market price is \$30 a frame. Paul produces ________ frames each week, makes ________ of total revenue, and makes zero ________ profit.
300; \$9,000; economic
question
In the long run, perfectly competitive firms earn just enough revenue to
pay all opportunity costs.
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The above figure shows the cost curves for a perfectly competitive firm. If all firms in the market have the same cost curves and the price equals \$16 per unit
over time, the price will fall as new firms enter the market.
question
Homer's Holesome Donuts has determined that its profit-maximizing quantity is 10,000 donuts per year. Homer's earns \$12,000 in revenue from the sale of those donuts. Homer's has two costs. First he pays \$16,000 in annual rental payments for its five-year lease on its store. Second Homer incurs an additional cost of \$5,000 for ingredients. Should Homer's exit the market in the long run?
yes, because he is incurring an economic loss
question
In the long-run equilibrium in a perfectly competitive market, the economic profit of the firms is
zero.
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In the long-run, if firms in a perfectly competitive market are incurring persistent economic losses, some firms will
exit and the price will rise.
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In the long-run equilibrium, perfectly competitive firms make zero economic profit because of
the ability of firms to enter and exit.
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In the long run, the economic profit of a firm in a perfectly competitive market
will equal zero.
question
Fast Copy is a perfectly competitive firm. The figure above shows Fast Copy's cost curves. If the market price is 4 cents per page, what is Fast Copy's economic profit?
between \$0.51 and \$1.00 per hour
question
The industry that produces zangs is in long-run equilibrium. Then the demand for zangs increases permanently. As a result, firms in the industry will ________. Some firms will ________ the industry, and the industry supply curve will shift ________.
make economic an profit; enter; rightward
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Suppose a perfectly competitive market is in long-run equilibrium. If there is a permanent increase in demand,
All of these answers are correct.
question
In a perfectly competitive market, a permanent increase in demand initially brings a higher price, economic
profit, and entry into the market.
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In the long run, perfectly competitive firms make zero economic profit (their owners earn a normal profit) because
any economic profit would attract newcomers to the industry.
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In a perfectly competitive market that is in long-run equilibrium, which of the following will NOT occur?
Entrepreneurs want to enter this industry.
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In a perfectly competitive market that is in long-run equilibrium, a rightward shift in the market demand curve results in
none of the events listed above.
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The figure above shows a typical perfectly competitive corn farm, whose marginal cost curve is MC and average total cost curve is ATC. The market is initially in a long-run equilibrium, where the price is \$3.00 per bushel. Then, the market demand for corn decreases and, in the short run, the price falls to \$2.50 per bushel. In the new short-run equilibrium, the farm produces ________ bushels of corn and sells corn at ________ per bushel.
250,000; \$2.50
question
In a perfectly competitive market that is in long-run equilibrium, a permanent leftward shift in the market demand curve
lowers the price at first but then raises it as firms leave the market.
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The figure above shows the marginal revenue and long-run cost curves for a perfectly competitive firm. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
The firm is producing at minimum long-run average cost.
question
Consumer surplus ________.
plus producer surplus is maximized when resources are used efficiently
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In the long-run equilibrium, perfectly competitive firms produce where
average total cost is minimized.
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The figure above shows the marginal revenue and long-run cost curves for a perfectly competitive firm. All other firms in the industry have identical curves. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
None of these are true.
question
In the long-run equilibrium for a perfectly competitive market
All of these are correct.
question
In the long-run equilibrium in a perfectly competitive market, the firms produce at the ________ possible average total cost and the price equals the ________ possible average total cost.
lowest; lowest
question
If the donut industry is perfectly competitive and is in long-run equilibrium, then the price of a donut
equals long-run average cost.
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In the long-run equilibrium, perfectly competitive firms produce the level of output such that
Both answers average total cost is minimized and marginal cost equals the price are correct.
question
This type of firm would likely operate as a monopoly
the local water company.
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If economies of scale allow one cable TV firm to supply the entire market at the lowest possible cost, then this company is
a natural monopoly.
question
A barrier to entry is
a natural or legal impediment that makes it difficult for new firms to enter a market.
question
Firms that can price discriminate between customers do so to ________.
increase their profit
question
Suppose a new vaccine for Lyme disease is developed by Merck, a large drug company. Which of the following is most likely to occur?
Merck will apply for a patent on the vaccine that grants it the monopoly rights to the vaccine for many years.
question
When natural or legal forces work to protect a firm from potential competitors, the market is said to have ________.
barriers to entry
question
Patents encourage invention by
allowing patent owners to make an economic profit.
question
A copyright creates a monopoly by restricting ________.
entry into the market
question
If the government grants a firm a public franchise to supply coal, a monopoly is created by
a legal barrier to entry.
question
All of the following are examples of price discrimination EXCEPT
"buy now, pay later" payment options.
question
The unregulated, single-price monopoly shown in the figure above will produce where its demand
is elastic.
question
The above figure illustrates a single-price unregulated monopolist. If the monopolist maximizes its profit, the consumer surplus equals ________.
\$20,000
question
Roxie's Movie Theatre is the only one in town. The table above gives the demand schedule for movies. If Roxie's is a single-price monopoly and the marginal cost of a movie is \$6, Roxie's will charge ________ a movie and will sell ________ movie tickets a week.
\$12; 200
question
The unregulated, single-price monopoly shown in the figure above will sell
30 tickets.
question
The motel whose costs are given in the table above has total fixed costs equal to
\$100.
question
La Bella Pizza is the only pizza place on Pepper Island. The figure above shows La Bella Pizza's demand curve, marginal revenue curve, and marginal cost curve. At La Bella Pizza's profit-maximizing output, its annual total revenue is
\$312,000.
question
If a monopolist lowers its price and its demand is inelastic, then its
total revenue decreases.
question
The figure above shows the cost, demand, and marginal revenue curves for a monopoly. At an output level of ________, demand is ________.
20; elastic
question
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A monopolist will leave the market if it incurs an economic loss in the long run.
question
The table above gives the demand for a monopolist's output. Between which two quantities is marginal revenue equal to 0?
4 and 5
question
For the monopoly shown in the figure above, the economic profit is
\$40.
question
Because of a decrease in labor costs, a monopoly finds that its marginal cost and average total cost have decreased. The monopoly ________ its price and ________ its quantity.
lowers; increases
question
When a person lobbies Congress to grant the person the exclusive right to sell a particular good, such lobbying activity is called
rent seeking.
question
Economists are critical of monopoly because
monopolists can create a deadweight loss.
question
If a perfectly competitive market becomes a monopoly and the costs do not change, which of the following allocations of costs and benefits applies?
The producer benefits, but consumers and society are harmed.
question
In the above figure, if a single-price monopolist charges the profit-maximizing price, the triangle dce represents
question
Interlace, Inc. produces and a unique soda. The company cannot price discriminate. The figure above shows Interlace's demand curve, marginal revenue curve, and marginal cost curve. The quantity of soda Interlace Inc. will choose to produce is ________ because when this quantity is produced, ________.
not efficient; marginal social benefit exceeds marginal social cost
question
An attempt by a firm to create a monopoly and gain the economic profit from the monopoly is called
rent seeking.
question
Methods of rent seeking include which of the following?I. Buying a monopolyII. Creating a monopolyIII. Price discrimination
I and II
question
A key difference between a monopoly and a perfectly competitive firm is that the monopolist
has a marginal revenue curve that lies below its demand curve.
question
Donna owns the only dog grooming salon on Lonely Island. If Donna can price discriminate between dog owners who are seniors and those who are not, her economic profit will be ________ than if she does not price discriminate and the number of dog groomings will be ________ than if she does not price discriminate.
greater; more
question
For a monopoly able to practice perfect price discrimination, the market
demand curve is the same as the marginal revenue curve.
question
If a monopolist can perfectly price discriminate, then
there will be no consumer surplus.
question
Which of the following is NOT necessary for a firm to engage in price discrimination?
The firm must produce output for different buyers at different costs.
question
Price discrimination by a monopoly
Both answers decreases consumer surplus and increases the firm's profit are correct.
question
It is easier for a monopolist to price discriminate between groups for a service than for a good because
it is easier for consumers to resell goods than resell services.
question
Price discrimination, where different units of a good are sold for different prices
is possible if the good cannot be resold.
question
Roxie's Movie Theatre has a monopoly and discovers that at \$12 a movie, no one is buying movie tickets during weekdays. Roxie's conducts a survey and the table above reveals the results of the survey. Roxie decides to price discriminate between weekend and weekday moviegoers. The marginal cost of a showing a movie is \$6. Roxie's charges ________ on weekdays and ________ on weekends.
\$9; \$12
question
In the figure above, a single-price unregulated monopoly will produce an amount of output equal to
h.
question
If the monopoly illustrated in the figure above could engage in perfect price discrimination, then when it maximizes
\$210.
question
Compared with the allocative efficiency of perfectly competitive firms, a monopoly tends to be:
Less efficient, as monopoly price will be higher than the marginal cost.
question
A monopoly firm currently finds that its marginal cost exceeds marginal revenue. What will the monopoly do to raise its profit?
It will lower the output and increase the price.
question
Assume a firm faces a market where there are individuals with elastic demands and inelastic demands. What should it do if it wishes to maximize revenues?
ower prices for those with elastic demand and raise them for those with inelastic demand
question
A monopoly is currently producing a certain quantity of output. All else being equal, what will happen to the price charged by this monopoly if there is an upward shift in demand?
Price will increase.
question
A monopolist produces a level of output that can be described as follows. The output is:
where marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost; and too little for allocative efficiency.
question
Due to_____________ , a natural monopoly's average cost is___________ as its output rises.
Economies of scale; decreasing
question
Price discrimination will mean that a firm will lower price to consumers whose demand is:
elastic and raise price where demand is inelastic. Revenues will rise in both cases.
question
A monopolist will produce where demand is:
elastic
1 of 143
question
Electric utility companies have built larger and larger electric generating stations and, as a result, the long-run average cost of producing each kilowatt hour decreased. This is an example of
economies of scale.
question
Silvio's Pizza is a small pizzeria. The firm's production function is shown in the table above. Suppose that Silvio's costs include only the cost of renting ovens, which is \$100 per oven per week, the labor cost, \$280 per worker per week, and the opportunity cost of Silvio's entrepreneurship, \$1,000 per week. When Silvio's uses 2 ovens and hires the 3rd worker, the marginal product of labor is ________ the average product of labor, and therefore the average product of labor ________.
less than; increases
question
The average total cost curves for plants A, B, C, and D are shown in the above figure. It is possible that the long-run average cost curve runs through points
d, e, and f.
question
In the above figure, the long-run average cost curve exhibits diseconomies of scale
between 20 and 25 units per hour.
question
When a firm is experiencing economies of scale
the LRAC curve slopes downward.
question
Diseconomies of scale definitely means that as the firm increases its output, its
long-run average total cost increases.
question
In the short run
no firm experiences economies of scale.
question
Silvio's Pizza is a small pizzeria. The firm's production function is shown in the table above. Suppose that Silvio's costs include only the cost of renting ovens, which is \$100 per oven per week, the labor cost, \$280 per worker per week, and the opportunity cost of Silvio's entrepreneurship, \$1,000 per week. Suppose Silvio's uses Plant 1 and hires 3 workers. What is the firm's average fixed cost?
\$11.00
question
The average total cost curves for Plant 1, ATC0, and Plant 2, ATC1, are shown in the figure above. Over what range of output is it efficient to operate Plant 2?
greater than 25
question
In the long run, if a firm is operating with economies of scale, it is on the ______ portion of its LRAC.
downward-sloping
question
If a production process faces diminishing marginal returns, which of the following is most likely?
Marginal costs are increasing.
question
The table shows the average costs of production for various quantities, given three different amounts of capital. Each factory illustrates a(n) _____ average cost curve.
U-shaped
question
Consider a firm, using capital (K) and labor (L) in the production process, that wants to expand production. Suppose MPK = 200 and MPL = 50. The cost of capital is r = 80, and the wage rate is w = 10. Should this firm employ more labor or more capital?
Labor
question
An economy is on its production possibilities frontier. If the economy faces diminishing marginal returns, what will happen to the opportunity cost as the production of one of the categories of goods increases?
The opportunity cost will increase as it takes more to produce the good.
question
In the typical short run model of the firm, we generally assume that labor is_______ and capital is________ .
variable; fixed
question
Consider the concepts of economies of scale and diseconomies of scale. What is meant by the word "scale" in these concepts?
The size of the firm.
question
An efficient Nebraska corn farm decides to hire more workers and use fewer harvesting machines after learning of:I. An increase in corn commodity prices.II. A decrease in fuel prices.III. An increase in worker productivity.IV. An increase in harvesting machine maintenance costs.
III and IV
question
In the long run, the total cost function will be:
Upward sloping.
question
Rising average product as inputs increase means that which of the following is happening to costs?
Average costs alone are falling.
question
Which of the following would be likely in a market with firms experiencing economies of scale?
Most of the firms will tend to be large.
question
Mimi wants to see if she should buy another oven for her restaurant. How might she use marginal analysis to make a decision?
Examine the price of the oven and the marginal product of the oven.
question
Diminishing returns is most relevant when:
None of the these.
question
A restaurant employs 10 workers and has one oven. The firm hires an 11th worker. The week after, it hires a 12th worker. The marginal product of the 12th worker is less than the 11th worker because of _______.
diminishing returns.
question
Consider a firm, using capital (K) and labor (L) in the production process, that wants to expand production. Suppose MPK = 400. The cost of capital is r = 80, and the wage rate is w = 10. The firm would use more labor to expand production only if the marginal product of labor is greater than _____.
50
question
A private psychiatrist's office is a business that will demonstrate ______________, as it will face increasing average costs in the long run.
diseconomies of scale
question
If the firm were to choose a permanent output level of Q = 8,000, the lowest average cost would be achieved with the _______.
large factory.
question
In order to maximize profits at any level of output, the firm must:
Minimize production costs.
question
A car manufacturing plant in Michigan employs the optimal combination of both unionized and non-unionized labor. The plant agrees to a new union contract that stipulates higher wages. As the plant re-adjusts its inputs, marginal product of non-unionized workers will:
Decrease.
question
Use the numbers to build the firm's LRAC function. In other words, assuming that at any level of output, the firm uses the proper factory size to get the lowest average cost of production. As this firm grows from 2,000 to 8,000 units, it will be experiencing:
Economies of scale.
question
Given the following data, what should the firm do? Current production = 1,000 Current price = \$10Marginal cost = \$10Total costs = \$15,000Fixed cost = \$6,000
Continue to produce in the short run, but close down in the long run.
question
Suppose in the long run a firm decides to grow in size and increase output. What will happen regarding the LRAC?
The firm will move from one point to another point, from left to right, on the same LRAC.
question
The key difference between the short-run and long-run model of the firm is that:
We assume at least one fixed input in the short run and all variable inputs in the long run.
question
Suppose in the long run a firm's labor costs decrease. What will happen regarding the LRAC?
The entire LRAC function will shift downward.
question
If the firm were to choose a permanent output level of Q = 6,000, the lowest average cost would be achieved with the ______.
medium factory.
question
Given the following facts, what should the firm do in the short run? In the long run?Fixed costs are \$50,000. Total costs are \$90,000. Total revenues are \$45,000.
Continue to produce in the short run; leave the industry in the long run.
question
Use the numbers to build the firm's LRAC function. In other words, assuming that at any level of output, the firm uses the proper factory size to get the lowest average cost of production. As this firm grows from 8,000 to 10,000 units, it will be experiencing:
Constant returns to scale.
question
Consider a firm, using capital (K) and labor (L) in the production process, that wants to expand production. Suppose MPK = 200 and MPL = 60. The cost of capital is r = 50. The firm would use more labor to expand production only if the wage rate is less than _____ dollars.
15
question
In the long run, if a firm is on the downward-sloping portion of its LRAC curve, the firm is currently experiencing ______.
economies of scale.
question
A small shirt factory in Taiwan doubles its labor inputs and experiences a tripling in output. A large catering kitchen in Tokyo increases its inputs by 30% and experiences a 50% increase in production. Which of the following is true?
Both firms enjoy economies of scale
question
At Wisconsin's snowy Lambeau Field, a football stadium, snow removal is currently done by a mix of workers (equipped with shovels and paid minimum wage) and automated self-operating snowblower machines, which require no labor. The stadium is currently using the optimal combination of both snowblowers and workers. If Wisconsin's minimum wage rises, and nothing else changes, what should the stadium do?
Utilize more machines and fewer workers.
question
A firm is producing where the Marginal Product of Labor is 18 and the Marginal Product of Capital is 10. The price of labor is \$3 and the cost of capital is \$2.
The firm is planning their future inputs and can now adjust both labor and capital. How should they adjust inputs?
Increase labor and decrease capital
question
Suppose a firm wants to do marginal analysis to see if it should employ more capital or more labor in order to increase output. The firm knows the prices of the inputs. Is this enough information to answer the question at hand?
No, the firm also needs to know the marginal productivities of each of the inputs.
question
Suppose that as a firm grows, it first experiences economies of scale, then constant returns to scale, then diseconomies of scale. The LRAC for this firm will be ______.
shaped like a wide U.
question
A firm is producing where the Marginal Product of Labor is 18 and the Marginal Product of Capital is 10. The price of labor is \$3 and the cost of capital is \$2.
They cannot adjust their capital, so are they in the short run or the long run?
Short Run
question
If the firm were to choose a permanent output level of Q = 4,000, the lowest average cost would be achieved with the _______.
small factory.
question
A pool-cleaning firm employs cleaning machines and cleaning workers. If local wages fall and robots become more effective, the firm should employ:
One cannot tell.
question
Economies of scale occurs when long-run average costs are and diseconomies of scale occurs when long-run average costs are .
decreasing / increasing
question
Suppose a company with a single large factory expands to multiple locations. This would require the firm to hire more mid-level management positions and establish an HR department. This firm is likely experiencing ________ with this expansion.
diseconomies of scale
question
The market demand for wheat is ________ and the demand for wheat produced by an individual farm is ________.
not perfectly elastic; perfectly elastic
question
If Steve's Apple Orchard, Inc. is a perfectly competitive firm, the demand for Steve's apples has
infinite elasticity.
question
Marginal revenue is defined as
the change in total revenue that results from a one-unit increase in the quantity sold.
question
The goal of a perfectly competitive firm is to maximize its
economic profit.
question
A market is perfectly competitive if
there are many firms in it, each selling an identical product.
question
A perfectly competitive firm has a total revenue curve that is
upward sloping with a constant slope.
question
The economic profit of a perfectly competitive firm
is less than its total revenue.
question
Which of the following is NOT an assumption of perfect competition?
Firms compete by making their product different from products produced by other firms.
question
For a perfectly competitive firm, as its output increases its marginal revenue ________ and its marginal cost ________.
does not change; changes
question
Bob's Lawn Care Services is a perfectly competitive firm that currently mows 22 lawns a week. Bob's marginal cost exceeds the price he charges. Bob can increase his profit if he
mows fewer than 22 lawns a week.
question
For a perfectly competitive firm, the shutdown point is the
amount of output at which price equals minimum average variable cost.
question
The donut market is perfectly competitive. The figure shows the costs of a typical donut producer. In the short run, the donut producer's supply curve is the curve running from point ________ to point E.
B
question
As long as it does not shut down, a profit-maximizing perfectly competitive firm will.
produce so that marginal revenue equals marginal cost.
question
If the price exceeds the average variable cost, by producing the level of output such that marginal revenue equals marginal cost, the firm ensures that it will
earn the largest profit possible.
question
In the above figure, if the price is \$8 per unit, how many units will a profit maximizing perfectly competitive firm produce?
20
question
The figure above shows the marginal revenue and costs of a perfectly competitive firm. The marginal cost of the last unit produced is
\$16 per unit.
question
The figure above shows a perfectly competitive firm. The firm is operating; that is, it has not shut down. The firm produces
10 units of output and incurs an economic loss.
question
The figure above shows a perfectly competitive firm. The firm is operating; that is, the firm has not shut down. The firm is
incurring a economic loss of \$200.
question
In the short run, an increase in demand for a good that is sold in a perfectly competitive market
increases the economic profits of existing firms in the market.
question
Giuseppe's Pizza is a perfectly competitive firm. The firm's costs are shown in the table above. If the market price is \$15, how much economic profit does the firm make?
\$0
question
The figure above shows the marginal revenue and costs of a perfectly competitive firm. The firm's profit is maximized when the firm produces
170 units of output.
question
The above table shows the per day total cost for Kiley's Baseball Glove Company. Each glove is priced at \$50 and Kiley's Baseball Glove Company is a perfectly competitive firm. At which of the following amounts of output is the economic profit maximized for Kiley's Baseball Glove Company?
5
question
The figure illustrates the short-run costs of Paul's Picture Frames Inc. The picture frame market is perfectly competitive and the market price is \$30 a frame. Paul produces ________ frames each week, makes ________ of total revenue, and makes zero ________ profit.
300; \$9,000; economic
question
In the long run, perfectly competitive firms earn just enough revenue to
pay all opportunity costs.
question
The above figure shows the cost curves for a perfectly competitive firm. If all firms in the market have the same cost curves and the price equals \$16 per unit
over time, the price will fall as new firms enter the market.
question
Homer's Holesome Donuts has determined that its profit-maximizing quantity is 10,000 donuts per year. Homer's earns \$12,000 in revenue from the sale of those donuts. Homer's has two costs. First he pays \$16,000 in annual rental payments for its five-year lease on its store. Second Homer incurs an additional cost of \$5,000 for ingredients. Should Homer's exit the market in the long run?
yes, because he is incurring an economic loss
question
In the long-run equilibrium in a perfectly competitive market, the economic profit of the firms is
zero.
question
In the long-run, if firms in a perfectly competitive market are incurring persistent economic losses, some firms will
exit and the price will rise.
question
In the long-run equilibrium, perfectly competitive firms make zero economic profit because of
the ability of firms to enter and exit.
question
In the long run, the economic profit of a firm in a perfectly competitive market
will equal zero.
question
Fast Copy is a perfectly competitive firm. The figure above shows Fast Copy's cost curves. If the market price is 4 cents per page, what is Fast Copy's economic profit?
between \$0.51 and \$1.00 per hour
question
The industry that produces zangs is in long-run equilibrium. Then the demand for zangs increases permanently. As a result, firms in the industry will ________. Some firms will ________ the industry, and the industry supply curve will shift ________.
make economic an profit; enter; rightward
question
Suppose a perfectly competitive market is in long-run equilibrium. If there is a permanent increase in demand,
All of these answers are correct.
question
In a perfectly competitive market, a permanent increase in demand initially brings a higher price, economic
profit, and entry into the market.
question
In the long run, perfectly competitive firms make zero economic profit (their owners earn a normal profit) because
any economic profit would attract newcomers to the industry.
question
In a perfectly competitive market that is in long-run equilibrium, which of the following will NOT occur?
Entrepreneurs want to enter this industry.
question
In a perfectly competitive market that is in long-run equilibrium, a rightward shift in the market demand curve results in
none of the events listed above.
question
The figure above shows a typical perfectly competitive corn farm, whose marginal cost curve is MC and average total cost curve is ATC. The market is initially in a long-run equilibrium, where the price is \$3.00 per bushel. Then, the market demand for corn decreases and, in the short run, the price falls to \$2.50 per bushel. In the new short-run equilibrium, the farm produces ________ bushels of corn and sells corn at ________ per bushel.
250,000; \$2.50
question
In a perfectly competitive market that is in long-run equilibrium, a permanent leftward shift in the market demand curve
lowers the price at first but then raises it as firms leave the market.
question
The figure above shows the marginal revenue and long-run cost curves for a perfectly competitive firm. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
The firm is producing at minimum long-run average cost.
question
Consumer surplus ________.
plus producer surplus is maximized when resources are used efficiently
question
In the long-run equilibrium, perfectly competitive firms produce where
average total cost is minimized.
question
The figure above shows the marginal revenue and long-run cost curves for a perfectly competitive firm. All other firms in the industry have identical curves. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
None of these are true.
question
In the long-run equilibrium for a perfectly competitive market
All of these are correct.
question
In the long-run equilibrium in a perfectly competitive market, the firms produce at the ________ possible average total cost and the price equals the ________ possible average total cost.
lowest; lowest
question
If the donut industry is perfectly competitive and is in long-run equilibrium, then the price of a donut
equals long-run average cost.
question
In the long-run equilibrium, perfectly competitive firms produce the level of output such that
Both answers average total cost is minimized and marginal cost equals the price are correct.
question
This type of firm would likely operate as a monopoly
the local water company.
question
If economies of scale allow one cable TV firm to supply the entire market at the lowest possible cost, then this company is
a natural monopoly.
question
A barrier to entry is
a natural or legal impediment that makes it difficult for new firms to enter a market.
question
Firms that can price discriminate between customers do so to ________.
increase their profit
question
Suppose a new vaccine for Lyme disease is developed by Merck, a large drug company. Which of the following is most likely to occur?
Merck will apply for a patent on the vaccine that grants it the monopoly rights to the vaccine for many years.
question
When natural or legal forces work to protect a firm from potential competitors, the market is said to have ________.
barriers to entry
question
Patents encourage invention by
allowing patent owners to make an economic profit.
question
A copyright creates a monopoly by restricting ________.
entry into the market
question
If the government grants a firm a public franchise to supply coal, a monopoly is created by
a legal barrier to entry.
question
All of the following are examples of price discrimination EXCEPT
"buy now, pay later" payment options.
question
The unregulated, single-price monopoly shown in the figure above will produce where its demand
is elastic.
question
The above figure illustrates a single-price unregulated monopolist. If the monopolist maximizes its profit, the consumer surplus equals ________.
\$20,000
question
Roxie's Movie Theatre is the only one in town. The table above gives the demand schedule for movies. If Roxie's is a single-price monopoly and the marginal cost of a movie is \$6, Roxie's will charge ________ a movie and will sell ________ movie tickets a week.
\$12; 200
question
The unregulated, single-price monopoly shown in the figure above will sell
30 tickets.
question
The motel whose costs are given in the table above has total fixed costs equal to
\$100.
question
La Bella Pizza is the only pizza place on Pepper Island. The figure above shows La Bella Pizza's demand curve, marginal revenue curve, and marginal cost curve. At La Bella Pizza's profit-maximizing output, its annual total revenue is
\$312,000.
question
If a monopolist lowers its price and its demand is inelastic, then its
total revenue decreases.
question
The figure above shows the cost, demand, and marginal revenue curves for a monopoly. At an output level of ________, demand is ________.
20; elastic
question
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A monopolist will leave the market if it incurs an economic loss in the long run.
question
The table above gives the demand for a monopolist's output. Between which two quantities is marginal revenue equal to 0?
4 and 5
question
For the monopoly shown in the figure above, the economic profit is
\$40.
question
Because of a decrease in labor costs, a monopoly finds that its marginal cost and average total cost have decreased. The monopoly ________ its price and ________ its quantity.
lowers; increases
question
When a person lobbies Congress to grant the person the exclusive right to sell a particular good, such lobbying activity is called
rent seeking.
question
Economists are critical of monopoly because
monopolists can create a deadweight loss.
question
If a perfectly competitive market becomes a monopoly and the costs do not change, which of the following allocations of costs and benefits applies?
The producer benefits, but consumers and society are harmed.
question
In the above figure, if a single-price monopolist charges the profit-maximizing price, the triangle dce represents
question
Interlace, Inc. produces and a unique soda. The company cannot price discriminate. The figure above shows Interlace's demand curve, marginal revenue curve, and marginal cost curve. The quantity of soda Interlace Inc. will choose to produce is ________ because when this quantity is produced, ________.
not efficient; marginal social benefit exceeds marginal social cost
question
An attempt by a firm to create a monopoly and gain the economic profit from the monopoly is called
rent seeking.
question
Methods of rent seeking include which of the following?I. Buying a monopolyII. Creating a monopolyIII. Price discrimination
I and II
question
A key difference between a monopoly and a perfectly competitive firm is that the monopolist
has a marginal revenue curve that lies below its demand curve.
question
Donna owns the only dog grooming salon on Lonely Island. If Donna can price discriminate between dog owners who are seniors and those who are not, her economic profit will be ________ than if she does not price discriminate and the number of dog groomings will be ________ than if she does not price discriminate.
greater; more
question
For a monopoly able to practice perfect price discrimination, the market
demand curve is the same as the marginal revenue curve.
question
If a monopolist can perfectly price discriminate, then
there will be no consumer surplus.
question
Which of the following is NOT necessary for a firm to engage in price discrimination?
The firm must produce output for different buyers at different costs.
question
Price discrimination by a monopoly
Both answers decreases consumer surplus and increases the firm's profit are correct.
question
It is easier for a monopolist to price discriminate between groups for a service than for a good because
it is easier for consumers to resell goods than resell services.
question
Price discrimination, where different units of a good are sold for different prices
is possible if the good cannot be resold.
question
Roxie's Movie Theatre has a monopoly and discovers that at \$12 a movie, no one is buying movie tickets during weekdays. Roxie's conducts a survey and the table above reveals the results of the survey. Roxie decides to price discriminate between weekend and weekday moviegoers. The marginal cost of a showing a movie is \$6. Roxie's charges ________ on weekdays and ________ on weekends.
\$9; \$12
question
In the figure above, a single-price unregulated monopoly will produce an amount of output equal to
h.
question
If the monopoly illustrated in the figure above could engage in perfect price discrimination, then when it maximizes
\$210.
question
Compared with the allocative efficiency of perfectly competitive firms, a monopoly tends to be:
Less efficient, as monopoly price will be higher than the marginal cost.
question
A monopoly firm currently finds that its marginal cost exceeds marginal revenue. What will the monopoly do to raise its profit?
It will lower the output and increase the price.
question
Assume a firm faces a market where there are individuals with elastic demands and inelastic demands. What should it do if it wishes to maximize revenues?
ower prices for those with elastic demand and raise them for those with inelastic demand
question
A monopoly is currently producing a certain quantity of output. All else being equal, what will happen to the price charged by this monopoly if there is an upward shift in demand?
Price will increase.
question
A monopolist produces a level of output that can be described as follows. The output is:
where marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost; and too little for allocative efficiency.
question
Due to_____________ , a natural monopoly's average cost is___________ as its output rises.
Economies of scale; decreasing
question
Price discrimination will mean that a firm will lower price to consumers whose demand is:
elastic and raise price where demand is inelastic. Revenues will rise in both cases.
question
A monopolist will produce where demand is:
elastic

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