Describe the pathophysiology of heart failure. What are the clinical signs and symptoms of heart failure?
2. Explain how the compensatory mechanisms for heart failure work to maintain cardiac function. What occurs if these mechanisms begin to fail?
3. What nursing measures should be implemented when working with older adults using cardiac glycosides? What are the signs and symptoms of digoxin toxicity and why are older adults at a higher risk?
Please use and list two reference from a peer reviewed source less than 5 years old (APA format) with in-text citations in APA.
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