Counting jails and prisons, approximately how many citizens are incarcerated?
a. 1 million
b. 2.3 million
c. 3 million
d. 4.3 million
Which important scholar argued that criminals and their punishment are functional in society, help to define norms and expectations for conformity?
a. Emile Durkheim
b. Cesare Beccaria
c. Travis Hirshchi
d. Cesare Lombroso
Political liberals and _______________ encouraged reform of the prison system during the Enlightenment Period.
a. Political conservatives
c. religious groups
d. political liberals
Lex talionis embodies which of the following principles?
a. Punishment should correspond in degree and kind to the offense.
b. An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth is legal punishment.
c. Punishment needs to be proportionate.
d. All of these
The Penitentiary Act was based upon four core principles where prisoners were confined in solitary cells and labored silently in common rooms. They include
a. secure and sanitary conditions.
b. nonsystematic inspections.
c. fees for inmates.
d. a continued regimen.
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